BB视讯

科学认识垃圾焚烧发电15问!

muqian,chengshishenghuolajiwuhaihuachulidefangshizhuyaoweiweishengtianmai、duifei、fenshao。suizhe“lajiweicheng”dexianxiangzaiduodishangyan,lajifenshaofadianjishuzhujianzourugongzhongshiye。lajifenshaofadianjishuxianchengweixuduofadaguojiahediquchulishenghuolajidezhuyaofangshi。benwenjiayuanhedajiashenrukexuerenshixialajidefenshaofadianchangjian15wen!

  1

  shenmeshilajifenshaochuli?

BB视讯  fenshaojiushishaodiao、shaohui;zairanshaoguochengzhong,bakerandewuzhidoushaowanle,huachenghuijin。fenshaochulishiliyonggaowenyanghuazuoyongchulishenghuolaji——jiangshenghuolajizaigaowenxiaranshao,shishenghuolajizhongdekeranfeiwuzhuanbianweieryanghuatanheshuideng,fenshaohoudehui、zhajinweishenghuolajiyuantijide20%yixia,congerdadajianshaolegutifeiwuliang,haikeyixiaomiegezhongbingyuanti。

  2

BB视讯  guowailajifenshaochulideqingkuangruhe?

  ouzhoufenshaochulixianzhuang

  muqianouzhougeguopubianjiaqianglajifenshaochuli,oumengdefeiwuguanlizuigaofalingyemingquezhichiheguliduilajijinxingnengyuanhuishou(yifenshaoweizhu)。1996-2007nian,oumengchengyuanguolajitianmailiangbuduanjianshao,erfenshaoliangquechengshangshengqushi。jutongji,2006nianouzhouzhuyaoguojiazongrenkouwei5.78yiren,shenghuolajichanshengzongliangyuewei2.97yidun,shenghuolajifenshaofadian(gongre)changdadao425zuo,lajifenshaochuliliangyue6362wandun,bi2001nianzengjiale20%。

  meiguofenshaochulixianzhuang

BB视讯  zaimeiguo,lajifenshaozailajichulixitongzhongyizhizhanyouyixizhidi,meiguoquanguolajifenshaochulilvyizhizai14%zuoyou。2007nian,meiguogongyou87zuolajifenshaofadian(gongre)chang,fenbuzai26gezhou,fenshaolugong220tai,zongguimo93 943dun/ri,gongchulilaji2870wandun,zhuangjizongrongliangwei2720mw,nianfadianliangwei170yidu。meiguodefenshaochulinenglishizhongguode2bei,jizhongzaidongbeibujingjifadadiqu。

  ribenfenshaochulixianzhuang

BB视讯  zairiben,lajifenshaochuliliangyizhishijugaobuxia,dongjingdezhongyangfenshaochangjuliribenhuanggongjin3.5gongli;ribenhuanggongzhoubian7gonglifanweineiyou7zuolajifenshaofadianchang。

BB视讯  xinjiapofenshaochulixianzhuang

  xinjiapodelajichulizhengceshi“fazhanyuweichizugoudefenshaochangyifenshaoquanbukeyifenshaodelaji,fazhanyuweichizugoudetianmaichangyichuliquanbubukefenshaodelajihefenshaohoudehuijin”,xinjiaposhixingdeshiquanliangfenshao、huizhatianmaidelajichulifangshi。xinjiapoxianyou4zuolajifenshaofadianchang、1zuolajitianmaichangji1zuoyuzhipeitaodehaishangzhuanyunzhan,fenbieweiyuqibeibu、zhongbu、xibupiannanhenanbuhaidao,chuzuizaojianshedewulubandanfenshaofadianchangjujuminqu2gongliwai,qitachulichang(chang)junjujuminqu10gongliwai。shimagaolajimaizhichangzhuyaotianmaixinjiapo4zuofenshaofadianchangfenshaohoudehuijin,yijibukefenshaodegongye、jianzhufeiliao,yujikeshiyongzhi2045nian。dashinanlajifenshaofadianchangquanfuhelajichulinengli3000dun/ri,weimuqianquanqiuguimozuida,nianshengchandianli9.81yiqianwashi,zhanxinjiapoquanbudianlixuqiude2%~3%。

  3

  woguolajifenshaofadiandexianzhuangshiruhe?

  woguolajifenshaofadiansuiqibujiaowan,danfazhanxunsu。 1988nianshenzhenjianliwoguodiyizuoyinjinribensanlingmadingjinkoushebeihejishudelajifadianchang——shenzhenshizhenghuanweizonghechulichang(richulilaji3×150dun,zhuangjirongliang4mw)。suihouzhuhai、shanghaipudonghepuxi、ningbo、hangzhou、wenzhou、suzhou、changzhou、zhongqing、chengdou、guangzhou、fuzhou、shamen、tianjinhebeijingdengduogechengshidelajifenshaofadianchangxiangjijianchengtouchan,2010nianquanguoyijianhezaijiandelajifenshaofadian(gongre)changyijingchaoguo170zuo。

  3

  shenghuolajinengranshaoma?nengfenshaochedima?

  shouxianyaoshuomingshenmeshirezhi: danweizhiliang(huotiji)deranliaowanquanranshaoshisuofangchudereliang,ji1qianke(huo1lifangmi)mouzhongguti(qiti)ranliaowanquanranshaofangchudereliangchengweigairanliaoderezhi。

BB视讯  suizhewoguoguominjingjidebuduanfazhan,renminshenghuoshuipingdebuduantigao,richangshenghuolajiderezhibuduantigao。muqianderezhishuipingxiangdangyuputongmeitande1/4,jutishujurezhizai4200qianjiao/gongjinzuoyou,wendingranshaoguochengzhongwanquankeyibuxuyaotianjiamei、youhuotianranqidengfuzhuranliaoerxiongxiongranshao,xianzaiguoneidejixielupailu,doubijiaochengshu,junnengchedifenshaoshenghuolaji,fenshaohoudecanzhashiyizhongmishide、bufubaidewujunwuzhi。

  5

  fenshaochuliyoushenmehaochu?yidunshenghuolajinengfaduoshaodian?nengjianshaoduoshaoeryanghuatandepaifang?

  lajifenshaochulijuyou “jianlianghua、ziyuanhua、wuhaihua”deyoudian,erqiefenshaochulisheshizhandijiaosheng,lajiwendinghuaxunsu,jianliangxiaoguomingxian,shenghuolajichouweikongzhixiangduirongyi,fenshaoyurekeyiliyong,zaianquanwuhaigaoxiaochulishenghuolajidetongshi,hainengliyongqifenshaosuochanshengdeyurejinxingfadian(gongre)liyong,fuhexunhuanjingjideyaoqiu,shimuqianguojiheguoneipubiantuichongdeshenghuolajichulijishu。

  liyongshenghuolajifenshaochanshengdeyurefadian,meiniankexiangdianwanggongdian,shixianfeiwuziyuanhua,bingjieshengbukezaishengziyuan——mei、tianranqihuoranyou,jianshaoleeryanghuatandepaifang。jugusuan,guoneilupailushenghuolajifenshaofadianchangshangwangdianliangyuewei250-350 kw.h/t,meidunshenghuolajifenshaofadiankejieyuebiaomei81-114 kg、jianpai202-283 kgeryanghuatan。

  6

  shenmeyangdechengshishihexuanzelajifenshaochulifangshi?

  suizhewoguochengshihuajinchengdejiakuaiherenminshenghuoshuipingdetigao,chengshiguimoyuelaiyueda、chengshirenkouyuelaiyueduo,congershidechengshishenghuolajichanliangbuduanzengjia,chengshilajiweichengweijiriyiyanzhong。tianmai、duifeichuliyijingbunengwanquanmanzuxuqiu,duifeiduiturangdefuyingxiangyejiaoda,dabufenlajitianmaichangyeyichuzaijijiangtianmaneryaozhongxinxuanzetianmaichangdideqingkuang,youyutudijinquehehuanjingdeyaoqiu,zaibutongdechengshigenjushijiqingkuangfazhanlajifenshaofadian(gongre)jishu,duilajijinxingwuhaihuachulijiuxiandegengjiapoqie。

  genjujingjifazhandexuyaoheshijiqingkuang,gdpbugaodediqupianxiangyujixucaiyongtianmaidefangshi,danqiantishiyaoyouzugoudetudizuoweitianmailajiyong。zaibijiaofadadiquhechengshi,suizhechengshirenkoudebuduanzengjia,shihecaiyongfenshaochulifangshi,yinweikeyijieshengtudiziyuan,jinxingwuhaihuachuli。

  7

BB视讯  fenshaochulijishuzhuyaoyounaxie?

  muqianzhuliudelajifenshaochulijishuzhuyaoyouliangzhong: yizhongshijixielupailujishu、yizhongshixunhuanliuhuachuangjishu。

  genjuwoguodexiangguanjishuzhengce“lajifenshaomuqianyicaiyongyilupailuweijichudechengshujishu,shenshencaiyongqitaluxingdefenshaolu。jinzhishiyongbunengdadaokongzhibiaozhundefenshaolu”。

BB视讯  jixielupailujishuyingshishenghuolajifenshaochulidezhuliujishu。jixielupailujishudetedian: yingyonglishizhangjiu,jishuchengshu。lajibuxuyaoyuchuli,guzhanglvdi,nianyunxingshijianzhang,chulinenglijiaoda。wendingranshaoguochengzhongbuxuyaotianjiafuzhuranliao,feihuichanshengliangjiaoshao,zaiguowaiheguoneidouyouguangfandeyeji,quanqiulajifenshaochulixingyejuedaduoshujuncaiyonggaijishu。

BB视讯  xunhuanliuhuachuangjishu: zailajifenshaochulilingyudeyingyongshijianjiaoduan,muqianhaichuyujishutansuoqi。muqianguoneidexunhuanliuhuachuangyunxingshixuyaoxiaohaobukezaishengdemei,bingqieduimeikuaidekelidaxiaoyouyidingyaoqiu,bixuxianjiangmeikuaijiagongposuihoucainengyoujimeishebeisongrulutang。tongshiyouyuqijishutedian,xunhuanliuhuachuangzailajifenshaochuliqianxuyaoduilajijinxingfenxuan、posuidengyuchuli,zaiyuchulihechangneideshusongguochengzhongrongyizaochengwushuiyijichouweidewaixie,duihuanjingzaochengerciwuran。gaijishuzailajiyanshengranliao(rdf)hewunidengfenshaochulifangmiangengjuyoushiyingxing,jiameibunengchaoguo30%。

  8

  fenshaorenengruheliyong?

  shenghuolajizhongcunzaidaliangdekeranwu,liyongshenghuolajidaitimeizuoweiranliao,zaifenshaoluneijinxingranshao、fachureliangbingchanshengzhengqi,jikeyifadian,yekeyiredianlianchanhuozhijiegongre。duishenghuolajicaiyongfenshaofadian(gongre)defangshi,budanchulileshenghuolaji,erqiehaijieyueleguojiadebukezaishengziyuan——meihuoranyou,tongshimibulewoguodianlidebuzu。

  9

BB视讯  fenshaochulichanshengnaxiefeiqi?ruhekongzhi?

  shenghuolajifenshaodeyanqikongzhixitongbiaozhunyuanbiranmeiguolu、ranyouguolu、jiaohualuyange。

  shenghuolajifenshaofadian(gongre)changpaifangdefeiqizhuyaolaiziyufenshaolusuochanshengdeyanqi,suohandezhuyaowuranwuweifenchen、lvhuaqing(hcl)、eryanghualiu(so2)、danyanghuawu(nox)、yiyanghuatan(co)、fuhuaqing(hf)、youjiwuranwu、ereyingjizhongjinshudeng。tongguojisuanjikongzhixitongshixianlajifenshao、renengliyong、yanqichulidengguochengdegaoduzidonghua,shifenshaoxitongzaiedinggongkuangxiayunxing,congershiyuanshipaifangwunongdujiangdaozuidi。yanqijingguoyanqijinghuaxitongchulihoutongguoyancongpairudaqiqian,shiyongyanqizaixianjianceyi——yilianxujiancemeitiaofenshaoxiandeyanqipaifangzhibiao,quebaolajifenshaofadian(gongre)changyanqidabiaopaifang。

  10

  fenshaochulichanshengnaxiefeizha?ruhechuzhi?

  luzha: shenghuolajizaifenshaoluzhongjinggaowenfenshao,shishenghuolajizhonggezhongchengfendedaochedideyanghua、fenjiehedunhuaerchengweiluzha,zuchengzhuyaoweiboli、jinshuhegeleiwujiwu。

  luzhazhuyaoweishenghuolajiranshaohoudecanyuwu,qichanshengliangshilajichengfenerding,qizhuyaochengfenweiyanghuameng(mno)、eryanghuagui(sio2)、yanghuagai(cao)、sanyanghuaerlv(al2o3)、sanyanghuaertie(fe2o3)、feijinshu,yijishaoliangweiranjindeyoujiwudeng,genju《shenghuolajifenshaowurankongzhibiaozhun》(gb18485-2001)guiding: “fenshaohoudeluzhaanyibangutifeiwuchuli”。lajifenshaochanshengdeluzhajingguogaowenwuhaihuachuli,zaijingguocixuandengfenlichufeigangtiedengfeijiujinshuhou,duiluzhajinxingzongheliyong,keyongzuopuludedianceng、tianmaichangfugaicengdecailiaohezhizuomianshaozhuandengdeng,luzhazongheliyonglvkeda98%,bunengzongheliyongbufensongzhitianmaichangtianmai。

  feihui: yanqijinghuaxitongshoujidefenchen(feihui)hanyouereyingjizhongjinshudengyouhaiwu,genju《shenghuolajifenshaowurankongzhibiaozhun》(gb18485-2001)guiding: “chuchenfeihuianweixianfeiwuchuli”。

  feihuishuyuweixianfeiwu,bixudandushouji,budeyushenghuolaji、fenshaocanzhadenghunhe,yebudeyuqitaweixianfeiwuhunhe。shenghuolajifenshaofeihuibudezaichanshengdizhangqichucun,budejinxingjianyichuzhi,budepaifang。shenghuolajifenshaofeihuichanshengdibixujinxingbiyaodewendinghuaguhuachuli,wendinghuaguhuachulizhihoufangkeyunshu,yunshuxushiyongzhuanyongyunshugongju。caiyongmibishoujiheshusongdefangshishusongzhifeihuichucang,jingjinchuduxingshiyanhegehousongzhitianmaichangtianmai。

  11

  lajifenshaochanshengdeereyingshishenme?

BB视讯  ereyingshijishangshiereyingleideyigejiancheng,tazhidebingbushiyizhongdanyiwuzhi,ershijiegouhexingzhidouhenxiangsidebaohanzhongduotongleiwuhuoyigoutideliangdaleigong210zhonghuahewu,zheileiwuzhifeichangwending,rongdianjiaogao,jinanrongyushui,keyirongyudabufenyoujirongji,shiwusewuwei、duxingyanzhongdezhirongxingwuzhi,suoyifeichangrongyizaishengwutineijilei。

  ereyingshiranshaoguochengzhongchanshengdewuranwu,lajilutianfenshaohuozaitianmaichanglajiziranpaifangdeereying,shitonglianglajijingguoxiandaihuafenshaopaifangdehenduobei;zaishengyousejinshu、liangang、tiekuangshifenshao、lianjiao、yitihuohua、zhutieshengchan、shuinishengchan、zhijiangzaozhi(hanlvpiaobaigongyishixingchengereyingdezhuyaoguocheng)dengxingyeyechanshengledaliangdeereying;haiyouqicheweiqi、xiangyan、shaokao、yanhuabaozhu、ziranjiezhongsenlinhuozaihehuoshanbaofadengdounenggouchanshengereying,qishiereyingliwomenbingbuyaoyuan。

BB视讯  muqian,womendehuanjingzhongcunzaideereyingzhuyaolaiziyuyejin、lianjiao、shihuadengxingye。

  12

  lajifenshaodeyanqizhongweishenmehuiyouereying?

  shenghuolajifenshaoguochengzhong,ereyingdeshengchengtujingbaokuoyixiajigefangmian:

BB视讯  (1)shenghuolajizhongbenshenhanyouweiliangdeereying,youyuereyingjuyourewendingxing,jinguandabufenjinggaowenranshaodeyifenjie,danrenghuiyouyibufenranshaohousuiyanqipaichu。

  (2)ranshaoguochengzhongyouhanlvqiantiwushengchengereying,qiantiwubaokuojulvyixi(shijingchangshiyongdeyizhongsuliao)、wulvbenfen(shifangzhipin、pigezhipin、mucai、zhizaojiangliaoheyinhuasejiangzhongpubiancaiyongdeyizhongfangmeifangfuji)deng,ranshaozhongqiantiwufenzitongguozhongpai、ziyoujisuohe、tuolvhuoqitafenzifanyingdengguochenghuishengchengereying,zheibufenereyingdabufenjinggaowenranshaobeifenjie。

  (3)dangranshaobuchongfenshi,yanqizhongchanshengguoduodeweiranjinwuzhi,zai300—500℃wenduhuanjingxia,jinggaowenranshaoyifenjiedeereyingyudaoshiliangdechumeiwuzhi(zhuyaoweizhongjinshu,tebieshitong)jiangzhongxinshengcheng。

  13

  lajifenshaozhongereyingdeshengchengkeyikongzhima?

BB视讯  jinguanfenshaokenengchanshengereying,danzhiyaokongzhiranshaodetiaojian,birurangyanqizailuzilitingliudeshijianzhangyixiejiukeyidafudujianshaoereyingdechansheng。

  (1)xuanyongfuheguojiabiaozhun《shenghuolajifenshaowurankongzhibiaozhun》(gb18485-2001)defenshaolu,kongzhiranshaowendu,quebaoyanqizairanshaoshineiwendudadao850℃yishangdequyutingliushijianbuxiaoyu2miao,shierciranshaodeqitixingchengxuanliu,shiranshaogengwanquan、gengchongfen,shiereyingchongfenfenjie。yanjiubiaoming,ereyingdeshengchengheyiyanghuatannongduyouhendaguanxi。yunxingzhongdiaojieyi、ercifenglianghepeibi,bingtongguoercifenglaijiaqiangraodong,shilajiranshaogengjiachongfen,congerkongzhiyanqizhongyiyanghuatandehanliangjiereyingdeshengchengliang。

BB视讯  (2)dangyanqiwendujiangdao300~500℃fanweishi,shaoliangyijingfenjiedeereyingjiangzhongxinshengcheng,yinci,shejikaolvjinliangjianxiaoyureguoluweibudejiemianji,shiyanqiliusutigao,yijianshaoyanqiconggaowendaodiwenguochengdetingliushijian,yijianshaoereyingdezaishengcheng。

  14

BB视讯  ereyingdepaifangkeyikongzhima?

  (1)shizaiyanqijinghuaxitongdeyandaoshangbuzhihuoxingtandaoruzhuangzhi,jiangbibiaomianjidayu700m2/gdehuoxingtanpenruyanqi,yixifuereying。tongshi,budaichuchenqizhong,dangyanqitongguoyoukeliwuxingchengdelvcengshi,hanchenyanqizhongcancundeweiliangereyingrengnengbeilvcengzhongweifanyingdeca(oh)2huocaofenmo、huoxingtanfenmodengsuozuchengdefenbingcengguolvhexifuerdedaojinyibujinghua。

  (2)shixuanyonggaoxiaobudaichuchenqi,caiyonggaoxiaolvliao,jiangfuyouereyingdefeihuiguolvshoujihou,yong“aoheji+shuini+shui”wendinghuachuli。

  15

  lajifenshaochulichangyouchouweima?ruhekongzhiechou?

  shenghuolajizhongyoujiwudefulanfenjie,bukebimiandijiangchanshengechouwuran。echouwuranyuanzhuyaolaizijinchangdeyuanshilaji,lajiyunshuchezaixieliaoguochengzhonghelajiduifangzailajichukengneisanfachudaiechoudeqiti,qizhuyaochengfenweiliuhuaqing(h2s),an(nh3)deng。

  weilekongzhifenshaochangchanshengdeechoukeyicaiquyixiacuoshi:

BB视讯  (1)lajibenshenshiyouchouweide,yincibupaichuyunshuyanluyouchouwei,zheifangmian,zhuyaoshicaiyongmibixing、juyouzidongzhuangxiejiegoudeyunshuchelaiyunshulaji,jinliangjianshaochouweiwaiyi;

  (2)lajiyunshuchejinruchejianhou,tongguoxieliaomenjianglajiqingdaojinlajikengzhong。lajixieliaomenweidiandongtishengshi,youzhuanrenkongzhi,yunshuchewanchengxieliaohoujishiguanbi,shilajikengmibihua。

  (3)lajixieliaodatingzongrukoushezhikongqimu,yifangzhichouqiwaiyi。

BB视讯  (4)lajikengweimibishi,fengjidexifengkoushezhiyulajikengshangfang,shilajikenghexieliaodatingchuyufuyazhuangtai,budannengyouxiaodikongzhichouqiwaiyi,youtongshijiangechouqitizuoweiranshaokongqiyinzhifenshaolu,echouqitizaifenshaoluneigaowenfenjie,qiweideyiqingchu。weibimianchouqiwaiyi,lajikengchangfangweifengbichangfang。

  (5)zaichangqusizhouzhongzhiyidingshuliangdegaodaqiaomu,jianshaoyingxiang。

  (6)weifangzhizaiquanchangtinglujianxiuqijian,lajikengdechouqiduizhouweihuanjingdewuran,kengneichouqijinghuoxingtanfeiqijinghuaqijinghuahoupaizhishiwai。dingqiduijinghuaqichukoudechouqinongdujinxingjiance,dangchouqichukounongdudadaoguobiaokongzhixianzhi,jishigenghuanjinghuaqineidehuoxingtan,feiqidehuoxingtanjiangyushenghuolajihunhejinrufenshaoluneijinxinggaowenfenshaochuli。

BB视讯  (7)shenlvyechulixitongweimibijiegou,dingbushedaoqiguan,chanshengdezhaoqiyijichouqitongguodaoqiguan、choufengjidaorulajichukeng。


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